ARMS

Crypto-Secure

Armament Regulation & Monitoring System

(ARMS)

By William Bishop

“The progressive solution to universal background checks”

1. Purpose of the ARMS:

A cryptographically secure program which facilitates the ability of the United States government to institute universal background checks requisite to the sale or purchase of firearms without establishing any form of firearm ownership registry or infringing the right to bear arms. This will allow private and professional sale of firearms to be done in a legally binding manner agreeable to all citizens of the United States.

2. Definition of the ARMS

The ARMS is a relationship of two secure entities:

  1. The first entity is controlled by the Federal Government: a secure server which keeps a master list of every citizen in the United States and their status with regards to legal right to purchase and bear arms, as well as the reason for denial of the right to purchase arms should that citizen be denied. This list should only be visible to the ARMS and the federal employees responsible for it’s administration. Should the list contain a denial of rights without a reason, or a reason not approved by law, the ARMS will refuse the denial of rights and allow the sale or purchase of arms to that citizen.
  2. The second entity is controlled by each State’s Defense Force (SDF): a Peer-to-Peer run network of one server per state which runs the core program of the ARMS. The SDF is chosen as the host of the network as they can not become federal entities, and under 32 U.S.C. § 109 of the US Constitution they are not required to operate under the orders of the military or federal government. This is intended to protect the ARMS from possible corruption, especially by the federal or foreign governments for the purpose of creating a national or centralized armaments registry. Any citizen engaging in the sale or purchase of arms must do so by requesting a background check from the ARMS, and if cleared can immediately transfer the ownership of firearms to the purchaser/borrower.

3. Legal Changes that might be needed to implement the ARMS

  1. The federal government must create an SDF accessible and universally secure server to host the approved ownership list, called the Federal Armaments Consent Table (FACT).
  2. The Federal government is responsible for having this list fully updated and populated at all times. In the event data is missing, ARMS will allow unrestricted transfer of armaments between citizens.
  3. Each state government must create a publicly accessible and universally secure server under the SDF to host the ARMS for the purposes of conducting universal background checks.
  4. Every purchase, lease, rental, borrowing, sale, etc. of firearms must be done through the ARMS.
  5. No one can monitor or attempt to monitor the transactions between ARMS and the FACT.
  6. No one can publish or attempt to publish the contents of the FACT.
  7. No one can falsely register or attempt to falsely register armaments with the ARMS.
  8. No citizen may register a physical serial number they do not own.
  9. No one cantransfer armaments privately without using ARMS.
  10. It is a felony to attempt hacking into ARMS.
  11. It is a felony to attempt decrypting ARMS cryptographic functions.
  12. No one can use or attempt to use another citizen’s DART ID for the ARMS. *Note: necessary legal changes are not limited to those provided by this document

4. How the ARMS Works

Registering an armament:

  • Every citizen in America has the right and ownership of one virtual arms ‘safe’ (Digital Armament Repository & Tracker or DART) stored within the SDF’s ARMS network.
    • To prevent unauthorized tracking of citizen’s armaments and activities, an ID is generated for every citizen’s DART and the ARMS stores the relationship between that ID and the list kept by the federal government. It is must be legally impermissible to store which citizen is attached to a given ID by ARMS.
  • Every DART keeps track of the citizen’s legal ownership of any armament, and facilitates the legal transfer of title proving ownership of the armament.
  • An existing firearm can be added to a citizen’s DART by supplying the ARMS with the armaments/firearm’s serial number, which is used to create the armament/firearm’s digital identification code.
    • It does this by creating an identification code resulting from a secure cryptographic hash function on the firearms physical serial number.
      • When current security algorithms (RSA) become ineffective for protection of data due to advances in quantum computing technology, the ARMS must be legally required to transition to a post-quantum cryptographic model.
    • The federal government is not legally permitted to have ownership or knowledge of the function, the physical serial numbers of the armaments, or the relationship between any armament’s physical serial number and identification code with the citizen who owns it.
      • Should the cryptographic function or citizen’s physical serial numbers become known by any federal government employee or elected official, the public and SDF of each state must be legally required to be informed immediately so that a new cryptographic function can be created and the appropriate responses can be taken.
  • When a serial number is registered to a DART, the ARM System sequesters the the number preventing other citizens from registering an armament with a duplicate serial number.
    • ARMS does not need, and must be expressly forbidden from, storing the relationship between a physical serial number and it’s identification code.
      • This means that the government, federal or state, does not know who owns which arms. The system only recognizes that the citizen owns an armament with a given ID, and authorizes the transfer of that ID from one DART to another.
    • In the event the ARMS already has registered a citizen’s armament, the citizen with proof of ownership can flag the serial number for being falsely entered into the system. The system will flag the DART ID which registered it and the reporting ID; and bar both from any further ARMS activity until they go to their nearest SDF to adjudicate the case. The owner possessing the armament with the valid serial number can present proof of ownership to their local SDF, who can manually attach the arm’s ID to that user’s DART. The ARMS system can then flag the FACT to alert the federal government whom can utilize that data to determine which citizen committed a felony. The SDF must be legally forbidden from utilizing this function without just cause.

Transfer of ownership process:

  • In order to legally purchase or sell arms in the US, the transaction must be approved by the ARMS.
  • An exchange between buyer and seller can be considered complete after the ARMS verifies the sale is valid and the armament’s code is removed from the seller’s DART and is added to the buyer’s DART.
  • In order for the ARMS to transfer the arm’s code from the seller’s DART to the buyer’s DART, the buyer must pass a background check. To accomplish this, the buyer must supply the seller with their DART ID to request the check from the ARMS against the FACT. If the DART ID returns that the sale is valid, a prompt to transfer ownership of the armament is supplied to the seller. If the seller determines the sale is completed and the requisite funds are transferred from the buyer to the seller, the seller will accept the prompt and the armament code will be removed from the seller’s DART and added to the buyer’s DART.
    • The background check and the transfer of arms is thus completed in a manner which is anonymous from the perspective of the state and federal government.
  • After an exchange occurs, the transaction is validated by the other 49 states on the Peer-to-Peer network.
    • Should the other 49 states determine the transfer is invalid, the transaction is halted and it is upon both parties to request adjudication at the SDF to resolve the problem.

Adjudication of issues related to armaments:

  • ONLY with a warrant signed by a judge, the SDF alone has the ability to enter a physical serial number into ARMS and return the generated code for an armament in the system and can release that data to federal or state law enforcement.
    • The SDF can not be compelled to release any information for any other reason and is within their rights to reject demands for data from any entity.
    • The ARMS will have the ability to alert the other 49 states of any illegal attempt to access data.
      • Intentional abuse of this functionality must be legally impermissible.
  • In instances of false registry of armaments, the citizen which possesses the physical armament or proof of possession can give their permission to the SDF to transfer the code generated from the serial number to their DART from the offender’s DART. That offender’s DART is restricted from use until requisite fines or legal issues are resolved – which the offender can expect will be served by the state or federal law enforcement.
  • The governor of a state is legally permitted to alter or affect their state’s ARMS only with approval from the state legislature and notifying the general public ahead of any motions to pass through the legislature.
    • It must be legally impermissible for the governor of a state to affect the ARMS under any other circumstance.
    • The only instance in which the ARMS system can be accessed or altered in a way not previously covered is under martial law.

5. Other Actions the ARMS is capable of:

*Note: This document only outlines the universal background check as the desired function of ARMS and does not advocate for the uses listed here. These uses are just some of the possible extensions of the ARMS program should they be desired in the future.

  • Replace the current paper-based open/concealed carry gun permits.
    • Should law enforcement wish to check if the weapon being carried by a citizen is allowed to be carried, the ARMS could display that the citizen with that DART ID is registered with the necessary permit as permit status can be attached to a DART ID. This document does not advocate for this.
  • Institute limits on the armaments permissible to be carried on one’s person.
    • Armaments can be ‘checked out’ and listed as such in their DART. A ‘checked out’ firearm is permitted to be carried for use in self-defense. Law enforcement can, with a warrant, ask the citizen for the physical serial number of their arms. This can then be given to the SDF to validate that the resultant identification code matches the citizen’s listed ‘checked out’ armament in their DART. (View-able from any smart device)
      • Legislation could determine the maximum number of ‘checked out’ arms permitted to a DART to ensure that firearms aren’t being wantonly lent out for carry by citizens without permits. This document does not advocate for this.
    • This same mechanism can be used to check anyone bearing arms for red flag law violations
  • Allow for legally binding agreements of rental or borrowing of armaments.
    • Armaments can be ‘lent’ from one DART to another. During the lending period, the code would transfer to the other DART flagged as ‘borrowed’. The code would be displayed in the lender’s DART as ‘on loan’. This follows the same logic as an arms sale; But after an agreed upon period of time, the borrower’s DART would remove the code and the lender’s DART would remove the ‘on loan’ status of the arm’s code. Continuing to hold onto the armament by the borrower would no longer be legal.

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